Jezkazgan city Komsomol Committee awarded the student of the 10th class of Jezkazgan secondary school No. 3 Anatoly Yunitskiy, who took the first place at the city exhibition of juniors’ technical and art creativity of students in 1965 for a functioning model of a rocket launch facility.

The jury were surprised by the level of the functioning model preparation: the three-stage solid-fuel rocket about a meter long flew up high into the sky out of sight, and then in a few minutes the third stage was brought back by a parachute.

Beginning. First steps to the dream

About 40 years ago engineer Anatoly Yunitskiy came up with the idea to create a general planetary vehicle, capable of placing into the earth’s orbit millions of tons of cargo in one trip without using rockets. Within the next 10 years active work was done on the first generation of string technologies, which immediately attracted public attention. It resulted in the first publications in scientific journals

of the USSR: "Interchange, outer-space, circularе", "Into space without rockets" (in Russian), "The planet’s Ring buoy" and others.

The technology is acknowledged (in Russian) by the USSR Federation of cosmonautics, and the Soviet Peace Fund has provided a grant.

The Council of Ministers of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic adopted a resolution to establish a special Fund "Star world" in the city of Gomel and in 1988 the first technical and scientific international conference "Rocketless industrialization of space" was held. In 1989 Soviet cinemas started to demonstrate movies about Anatoly Yunitskiy’s string

technologies "To the sky by wheel" and "Earth's gravity for stars" (in Russian), released by the film studio "Belarusfilm".

This period allowed to make the first serious step towards the further development of the celebrated SkyWay transport technology.

The 90-ies. Scientific school

The beginning of the 90s was marked by the creation of a scientific school and the publication of the first monograph by Anatoly Yunitskiy "String transport systems: on Earth and in space". It was the first one to summarize the scientific research of the author in the period of 1977-1995. At the same time the first functioning models (in Russian) were developed and high-speed rolling stock was tested in a wind tunnel.

The string transport has passed an expert examination at the Academy of Sciences of Belarus and Belarusian State University (BSU). After it the Vice President of the Academy of Sciences, academician and General designer of the Minsk Automobile Plant M. Vysotskiy and the rector of BSU, academician of the Academy of Sciences, Chairman of the Board of Scientific-technological Park F. Kaputskiy addressed a request (in Russian) for support of the new mode of transport to the President of the Republic of Belarus A. Lukashenko. As a result of this appeal there appeared

an instruction of the President of the Republic of Belarus (in Russian) to the Prime Minister: "Render support to the developers in the completion of experimental design work on the creation of the string transport system".

Within a few years the research monograph of A. Yunitskiy "String Transportation System (STS) in questions, answers and projects" was five times republished and in 1998 the UN Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) issued a grant and signed an international Project document FS-RUS-98-S01 (in Russian) "Sustainable Development of Human Settlements and Improvement of their Communication Infrastructure through the Use of String Transportation System".

Daily long-term work became the starting point for the construction of a test site in the town of Ozyory.

Test site. Moscow region

In 2001 in the town of Ozyory of the Moscow region the first SkyWay technology test site was built. The object was created against the order of the Krasnoyarsk Region Administration and personally its Governor Alexander Lebed, who financed the work from his own Foundation. Joint stock "Yunitskiy scientific and production company", headed by Anatoly Yunitskiy, acted as the General designer and General contractor of works on the construction of the test site, where the first generation of string technology for cargo transportation was implemented. The construction of the test site was carried out on the territory of Moscow region and its Governor Boris Gromov was keenly interested in the process and visited the construction site three times in 2001.

The course of works included design concepts of various types, variants and models of passenger, cargo, cargo/passenger and special rail cars, string-rails (string-trusses), intermediate and anchor supports, stations, terminals, servicing loco depots, cargo terminals of the "second level". Various components, assemblies, technological tooling and special equipment were also tested. The staff studied the behavior of the string transport system under different loading conditions and under the influence of changing climatic factors. The technology of operation, maintenance and repair of a string-rail track were worked out, dozens of inventions and over a hundred patentable know-how were created.

Hundreds of tests  and experiments  were conducted at the test site, numerous expert opinions were obtained. The joint stock "Yunitskiy scientific and production company" was awarded with three gold medals of the Quality mark "Russian Brand" in the following nominations: "String transport technology", "Passenger module project" and "Cargo module project".

To create a circular route linking the airports of Moscow aviation hub between themselves and Moscow, a working group was set up by the order of the Moscow region Governor. It was acknowledged at the joint meeting (in Russian) of the scientific and technical Council of the Russian Ministry of transport and Ministry of Railways held on 12 April 2002 that string transport is a reality that can be criticized, but it cannot be ignored: it is needed for too many people.

The joint work of specialists from various countries on the construction of the test site of SkyWay technology first generation made it possible to perform a most complex range of activities. Only 9 months have passed from the initial test site designing till its operational commissioning. This experience became an analogue of "the airplane of the Wright brothers" and proved to skeptics the feasibility and viability of the technology. Thanks to the creation of the test site, the second grant from the United Nations was obtained.

The main result of the works at the test site was the development of future generations of string transport.

Work on state contracts and agreements

In the 2000s, the project designing company "Unitsky string transport" was set up in Moscow and a project-designing bureau was started in Minsk. Thanks to the joint work of these companies, a number of government contracts have been concluded and an important work on the development of SkyWay technologies in the regions was performed, including:

  • State contract No. 7у on the development of the project "General transport strategy of the use and creation of Unitsky rail-string transport (UST) in Yugra", customer – the Department of investments, science and technologies of Yugra;
  • State contract No.12у to develop a feasibility study of the construction of a high-rise urban double-track passenger string transport system in the city of Khanty-Mansiysk, customer – the Department of investments, science and technologies of Yugra;
  • Municipal contract No. STU-02/06 for creating an elevated string-type route (Unitsky string transport) in the city of Stavropol, customers – Stavropol Committee of city development and municipal unitary enterprise "Stroyinvest" of the city of Stavropol;
  • Work and labour contract No. STU-02/05 on the feasibility study for the creation of a section of Unitsky string transport in the city of Khabarovsk, customer – city Administration of Khabarovsk;
  • Work and labour contract No. STU-01/06 on the development of project documentation on a double-track section of macroUST route "Dikopoltsev Street – Gogol street" of 1 km distance in the city of Khabarovsk, customer – city Administration of Khabarovsk;
  • Agreement № А-15/2007 on the development of a technical proposal on the UST transport system in the city of Yekaterinburg on the route "Railway station – multifunctional complex "Cosmos-city", customer – CJSC "Uralplastic";
  • Contract No. STU-008 for the development of a technical proposal for cargo Unitsky string transport for Australian conditions, customer – String Transport System Ltd. (all in Russian).

The company plans to design and produce functioning models of dual-rail and monorail UST tracks while executing the contracts, and in 2009 the State Council on innovations in transport, headed by Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, supported the idea of creating an innovative center of string technologies in the city of Ulyanovsk.

In the 2010s Anatoly Yunitskiy’s intellectual property created by the engineer during 40 years of intensive work was estimated at 400 billion US dollars. The assessment was performed based on international standards by an independent company specializing in this activity.

This capital became the basis for the formation of the SkyWay Group of Companies, which set a goal to introduce in the market of transport services the fourth, most progressive generation of innovative SkyWay transport systems.

CJSC "String technology" begins its work in 2015 (Minsk, Belarus). The company has evolved from a branch of JSC "Rail SkyWay Systems Ltd.", established on 21 April 2014 by the project design unitary enterprise "Rail SkyWaySystems".

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